338 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION As part of this policy several training colleges were established under disciples of Pestalozzi, in which a three-years' course of training was given to those purposing to become primary teachers. A very valuable outcome of this was the remarkable development of educational theory, mainly, and for a time exclusively, based on the pedagogical doctrines of Herbart, 3. JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERBART Herbart (1776-1841) occupies an almost unique place among educational philosophers in that he was at once an educator and a philosopher. His way of looking at educational problems was consequently not a merely theoretical deduction from his philo- sophy, but wras grounded on both philosophy and experience. " The book/' he says, speaking of his chief work on pedagogy, " owes its existence almost as much to the little collection of carefully arranged observations and experiments which I have gathered together on various occasions as it does to my philo- sophy."* In view of this it is necessary to know the main facts of the life experience out of which both philosophical and educational theories issued. He was born at Oldenburg in 1776. After a good education in classics and philosophy, in which he showed exceptional and precocious ability,' he entered the university of Jena at the age of eighteen. There he came under the spell of Fichte, and the idealistic philosophy. But idealism did not satisfy him long, and before he had left Jena at the age of twenty-one he had taken his stand in definite opposition to it. From 1797 till 1809 his life moved on its own course in seeming indifference to the great events which were then convulsing Germany and Europe. For three years he acted as private tutor to three boys, aged eight, ten and fourteen, and laid the foundations of his educational theory by a careful analysis of his experience with them. In the year this work came to an end he visited Pdstalozzi at Burgdorf, and made an appreciative study of his aim and methods. The results of this appeared in his first writings on education: Pestalozzi*$ Idea of an A B C of Sense-Impression (Anschauung), published in 1802, and The ^Esthetic Presentation of the World as the Chief * Felkins, Herbart*$ Science of Education, p. 251.